The iranian revolution past, present and future content. Chapter 2 focuses on the social, political and economic status of iran, pre and post revolution. Irans peaceable relations with the united states of america. Observers differ on how many people died during the iranian revolution. This is a clip from a documentary titled crisis in iran by the history channel with mike wallace.
The iranian revolution opened a new chapter in the history of mass popular revolutions in the world. I suppose we could talk about how economically the revolution and the subsequent events have been a disaster. In iran, the revolution of 1979 and the rise of islamic fundamentalism resulted in a return to many traditional customs the revolution of 1979 ended the westernization and modernization of iran, and set up a traditional government and society based upon the koran. So we will look at what happened during the iranian revolution of 1978 1979.
Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content on this page. Pdf this paper intends to explore the role and key contributions that ayatollah. The multiple contexts of the iranian revolution in. And the end goal of the revolution was never a state, it was the expansion of the revolution. The shahs military was the main pillar of his rule but failed to quash the islamic revolution in. The iranian revolution of february 1979 middle east. Background to the revolution shah reza pahlevi, returning to iran after a weeklong exile due to the failled mohamed mossadegh coup detat. The iranian revolution of 197779 was the first in a series of mass popular civil insurrections which would result in the overthrow of authoritarian regimes in dozens of countries over the next three decades. Usrussian strategic relations and the structuration of central asia. The iranian revolution kent as the islamic revolution or 1979 revolution an aw.
The revolution led to a surge in iranian backed terrorism that continues, albeit in quite different forms, to this day. Iranian revolution, also called islamic revolution, persian enqelabe eslami, popular uprising in iran in 197879 that resulted in the toppling of the monarchy on february 11, 1979, and led to the establishment of an islamic republic. Islamist revolutionaries opposed the western secular policies of the authoritarian shah of iran mohammed reza pahlavi supporters of ayatollah khomeini organized protests in opposition to the authoritarian government of the shah. Mar 14, 2018 talk by professor michael axworthy at stanford university on february 15, 2018. Sep 07, 2006 so we will look at what happened during the iranian revolution of 1978 1979. Another major figure was ayatollah khomeini who became leader of iran after the islamic revolution of 1979. Celebrating its 35th anniversary, irans islamic revolution shocked the world and redrew the map of global alliances.
Supporters of ayatollah khomeini organized protests in opposition to the authoritarian government of the shah. The iranian revolution of 1979 has been described as one of the epochal. How 1979 transformed the regional balance of power, itamar rabinovich 15. The rise and fall of the iranian revolution of 1979. That is, we will attempt to answer the following research question.
Its lessons for today kamran nayeri and alireza nasab achievements the february 1979 iranian revolution was the largest urban mass uprising since the 1917 russian revolution. Brief background information explains the underpinnings of the revolution and basic facts about islam, including the differences between shiite and sunni sects. Iran s 1979 revolution is one of the most important events of the late twentieth. By mark curtis british foreign policy declassified forty years ago, the iranian revolution sent a. The 1979 iranian revolutions enduring impact on the world.
He also served several times as general secretary of the islamic republic party. James buchan read persian at oxford university and in isfahan in the 1970s and was for many years. Reflections on the origins of the iranian revolution of 1979. A revolution is a mass movement that intends to violently transform the old government into a new political system. Irans islamic revolution after the overthrow of the shah, an american ally became one of its biggest.
Initially, kurdish movements were trying to align with the. Panelists reflect on the events that unfolded during the iranian revolution in 1979, how the united states responded, and the consequences for today. The iranian revolution was the largest urban movement since the 1917 russian revolutions. Nov 25, 2019 heres a brief history of the iranian revolution of 1979, in which islamic clerics overthrew shah pahlavi and established the islamic republic of iran. My brother of 17yo was in shahs jail for having read three books. Emphasizing the interaction between political organizations and social forces, ervand abrahamian discusses iranian society and politics during the period between the constitutional revolution of 19051909 and the islamic revolution of 1977 1979. However, the causes of revolutionary discontent can be traced back decades, and must first be analyzed. A highly readable book by a knowledgeable american journalist about the ussupported coup in iran and its impact on the iranian revolution of 1978 1979 and for american foreign policy in iran and the greater middle east. The islamic revolution occurred in 1979, in the muslim majority country of iran. The iranian revolution is the only modern revolution which was deliberately and coherently fomented by a revolutionary movement consisting of different social classes united under the leadership of a senior shia cleric ayatollah ruhollah khomeini.
The iranian revolution also known as the islamic revolution was the revolution that transformed iran from a monarchy under shah mohammad reza pahlavi to an islamic republic under ayatollah ruhollah khomeini. Summary of 1979 islamic revolution for dummies the iranian. In the iranian revolution of 1979, ayatollah sayyid ruhollah musavi khomeini ousted mohammad reza pahlavi, who succeeded his father as shah of iran in the early 1950s. The iranian revolution of 1979 was unexpected, to say the least. Nevertheless, for the iranian world the advent of islam meant not liberation but defeat and conquest by an alien people. Ruhollah khomeini ruhollah khomeini centre greeting supporters after returning to tehran, february 1979. Reza shah, the elder pahlavi, came to power during the 1920s after promoting the idea of 2,500 years of persian monarchy mohammadi 38. The rise and fall of the iranian revolution of 1979 nodo50. The iranian revolution 19771979 download pdf version by stephen zunes april 2009. Iranian foreign policy since the iranian islamic revolution. Dec 03, 20 the iranian revolution occurred between 1977 and 1979, beginning with a series of demonstrations and ending with the overthrow of the shah. The 1979 islamic revolution in iran has proved one of the most consequential events in the history of modern terrorism. The year that shaped the modern middle east new york. The iranian revolutions legacy of terrorism, daniel byman 16.
The iranian revolution of 1979, together with revolutions in nicaragua and grenada, were the last revolutionary upsurge in the waves of post world war ii anticolonial, antiimperialist and democratic revolutions. The true story behind the secret mission to save six americans during the iran hostage crisis and the foreign ambassador who worked with the cia to bring them home hardcover. In some of its basic characteristics, the revolution did not conform to the usual norms of western revolutions, because the state did not represent just an ordinary dictatorship but an absolute and arbitrary system that lacked political legitimacy and a social base virtually across the whole of the society. Chapter 1 the historical background chapter 2 notes on the history of iran chapter 3 the communist party of iran chapter 4 the february revolution of 1979 chapter 5 the basis of islamic fundamentalism chapter 6 the economics of counter revolution. The iranian revolution 1977 1979 download pdf version by stephen zunes april 2009. Background and causes of the iranian revolution wikipedia. The iranian revolution, which began in 1979 after years of climax, was an uprising against the shahs autocratic rule resulting in much religious and political change. Mar 27, 2020 suzanne maloney, editor of the new brookings press volume the iranian revolution at forty, discusses the enduring significance of the 1979 iranian revolution with brookings press director bill. Revolution, 1979 juvenile literature publisher new york. What are the culturalpolitical effects of the iranian revolution of 1979.
The revolution of february 1979 was a revolt of the society against the state. Irans islamic revolution inspired, divided militants. The 21 and 22 of bahman 57 12 and february 1979 were the days of the collapse of the monarchic system when domestic tyranny, and the foreign dominance that relied on it, were. At the first signs of escalating unrest in early 1978, neither iranian nor u. It changed that strategic relation of forces in the middle east to the detriment of imperialism. Less noticed, but equally significant, the revolution provoked a response by saudi arabia and various sunni militant groups that set the stage for the rise. In this lesson, were going to see how a protest of clerics and students turned into a rapid revolution, and explore the impacts. Jun 11, 2009 iranians vote on friday in the 10th presidential election since the 1979 islamic revolution which toppled the u. The role and contribution of ayatollah ruhollah khomeini.
The iranian revolution utrecht university repository. He helped overthrow the much hated regime of the shah. Following the success of the revolution, the islamists instituted a theocratic dictatorship and wiped out the workers movement and the left. The iranian revolution past, present and future glittering achievements, the sassanid empire was characterised by extreme oppression of the downtrodden masses. Two of those books were from the azari poet samad behrangi. Suzanne maloney, editor of the new brookings press volume the iranian revolution at forty, discusses the enduring significance of the 1979 iranian revolution with brookings press director bill. Were the thirteen essays michel foucault wrote in 1978 1979 endorsing the iranian revolution an aberration of his earlier work or an inevitable pitfall of his stance on enlightenment rationality, as critics have long alleged. This dissertation will analyze and contend that the islamic republic of iran after the 1979 revolution can provide stability in the gulf region. The iranian revolution 19771979 international center on. Pdf this paper intends to explore the role and key contributions that ayatollah ruhollah played in the iranian revolution.
The number of casualties suffered by protesters and revolutionaries at the hands of the shahs monarchy during the revolution is either close to 60,000, or around 2,000, depending on whether the estimates used are those of islamic government or from historians in western countries. Yes, most working people and youth who made the 1979 revolution opposed the royal decree imposed in the 1930s by the imperialistbacked shah of iran, in. But the compulsory hijab a headscarf covering the hair and neck is not a symbol of iran s revolution. Forty years ago, ayatollah ruhollah khomeini spearheaded a revolution that deposed a monarchy in iran. Mar 06, 2018 what caused the iranian revolution in 1979. The 1979 iranian revolution council on foreign relations. How iran and the world around ithave changed in the four decades since a revolutionary theocracy took power. It subsequently became the largest among the nationwide uprisings in iran against the new state and one of the most intense kurdish rebellions in modern iran.
In simple terms, the regime of muhammad reza shah pahlavi was overthrown by a coalition of opposition forces dominated by shii muslim fundamentalists. Islamist revolutionaries opposed the western secular policies of the authoritarian shah of iran mohammed reza pahlavi. From october of 1977 to february of 1979, the people of iran called for the end of the monarchy but they didnt necessarily agree on what should replace it. Shah pahlavi faced a broad coalition of opposition forces, including marxists and constitutional liberals, but the.
Sep 18, 2006 this is a clip from a documentary titled crisis in iran by the history channel with mike wallace. Mar 10, 2015 iranian revolution the iranian revolution is considered the 3rd greatest revolution in history. The iranian revolution a history and analysis of the revolution in which socialists aligned themselves with islamists to overthrow the westbacked shah. If the inline pdf is not rendering correctly, you can download the pdf file here. I could mention the estimates that if iran had kept on its pre 1979 trajectory, its gdp would be the largest in the middle east today and. The effects of the 1979 revolution, including the takeover of the u. The organs of the iranian state serve the revolution, not the other way around. By looking at the historical, domestic, international, and socioeconomic factors related to the revolution, this case study examines the turbulent context of iranian society in the 1970s and the crucial role that religion played in shaping modern iran. Iranian revolution wikimili, the best wikipedia reader. Beginning in 1978, largescale antigovernment demonstrations challenged. Islamic revolution simple english wikipedia, the free. The 1979 kurdish rebellion in iran erupted in midmarch 1979, some two months after the completion of the iranian revolution. Iranians vote on friday in the 10th presidential election since the 1979 islamic revolution which toppled the u. Women and the islamic revolution international journal.
The bbc persian service and the islamic revolution of 1979. The picture show the recent unrest in iran harkens back to the 1979 islamic revolution. Diplomatic relations between the us and iran have been frozen since the 1979 islamic revolution. The current overlaps in us and iranian interests make the ongoing bilateral impasse ripe for reassessment, but while the potential to advance relations exists, progress will be measured by the development of several key political, economic, civil society, foreign policy, and national security. The iranian revolution and its legacy of terrorism lawfare. Women and the islamic revolution volume 15 issue 2 adele k. Embassy in tehran and ensuing hostage crisis, reverberate through decades of tense relations between iran and america. Iran is an important test case firstly because until the revolution, iran was one of three key prowestern strongholds in the middle east necessary for suppressing local worker demands and keeping oil production cheap the others being israel and saudi arabia.480 1566 294 1273 1 58 403 942 1087 897 109 1107 5 902 1458 1232 1025 600 1042 954 1523 1349 445 1151 475 760 790 1274 269 1029 136 1195